Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Alstonia scholaris, known to be a powerful medicinal plant has been studied well for the bio active principles present in the leaf, stem and the root barks. In the present study the inflorescence was selectively investigated for biologically active phytochemicals for the first time. Flowers were collected dried and extracted by successive solvent extraction. The solvents consisted of non polar to polar hexane, benzene, isopropanol, ethyl alcohol, methanol, acetonitrile and water. The crude extracts were concentrated and screened for phytochemicals qualitatively. Alstonia scholaris flowers were found to contain alkaloids, carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols, tannins, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, terpinoids, steroids, fixed oils and fats. Each solvent extract was tested for anti microbial activity against both Gram positive and negative bacteria. The organisms tested were Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Lactobacillus sps., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. The benzene, methanol and water extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and it was more pronounced against Gram positive (20-25mm) than against Gram negative bacteria (18-21mm). The ethyl acetate extract also showed higher activity against Gram positive (20-23mm) compared to Gram negative (14-18mm). Though all the extracts showed marked inhibition of all the organisms tested, hexane extract had no cidal activity against Lactobacillus and Salmonella typhi. The water extract showed no cidal activity against P.aeruginosa and S.typhi at the concentrations tested (200-240 µg).
Key words: Alstonia scholaris, alkaloids, carbohydrates,antibacterial activity, cidal activity.
June 2011 Issue
June - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 04
( Total Articles =30 )
June - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 04 / / Article No - 25 / Research Article
PHYTO CHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS FLOWERS (L) R. BR. FAM: APOCYANACEAE
Vaidyanatha Iyer Thankamani*1, Joel James1,
Arun kumar Thaliyil Veetil1,
Lipin Dev Mundur Sagadevan1
1SBST, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore-632014, India