ABSTRACT

   Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.



        

Key words:
Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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ABSTRACT
  
Metoprolol sustained release microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method and characterized for their particle size, percentage yield and drug loading, as well as by scanning electron microscopy. In vitro release studies were performed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). The effects of different Metoprolol: HPMC: EC ratios (1:1:1, 1:2:1, 1:3:1, 1:1:2, 1:1:3) and different plasticizer (diethylphthalate) concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% v/w) on metoprolol release were also investigated. At increased concentration of HPMC, drug loading was decreased significantly and upto certain concentration of ehtylcellulose, it was increased. The drug release decreased significantly with increased in polymer ratio. It was showed in the range 64.132.28 to 78.162.34 at 12 h. The formulated microspheres containing MS: HPMC: EC in the ratio 1:1:2 showed satisfactorily sustained the release upto 12 h (78.162.34). Also, the release was significantly decreased (P<0.001) with increasing plasticizer concentration from 15 to 20%, with no significant difference between un-plasticized and 5 % plasticizer.


Key words:
 
Microspheres, metoprolol release, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, ethylcellulose, diethylphthalate concentration.
June 2011 Issue
June - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 04
( Total Articles =30 )
Article No 20
June - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 04 / / Article No - 20 / Research Article


EFFECTS OF DRUG-POLYMER RATIO AND PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION ON THE RELEASE OF METOPROLOL POLYMERIC MICROSPHERES

Sachin B Somwanshi*1, R. T Dolas1,
V.K Nikam1, V. M Gaware2, K. B. Kotade3,
K. B. Dhamak2, A. N. Khadse2 and V. A. Kashid1

1Department of Pharmaceutics,
College of Pharmacy, Chincholi, Sinnar, Nashik, M.S, 422 102.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
College of Pharmacy, Chincholi, Sinnar, Nashik, M.S, 422 102.
3Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy,
Chincholi, Sinnar, Nashik, M.S, 422 102.

Email:
sachinsomwanshi27@gmail.com.
S. Somwanshi
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