Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
Copyright © 2009 by "International Journal of Pharmaceutica Research and Development" · All Rights reserved · E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
HOW TO PREPARE
Online Since : March 2009
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
((( PREVIOUS ARTICLE
NEXT ARTICLE )))
Labetalol hydrochloride, a lipophilic anti-hypertensive drug, has poor bioavailability (25%) due to the first pass effect and thus the dose has to be given 3-4 times a day, as a result of which several side effects are associated with the current dosage form. In present investigation an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate buccoadhesive tablets of Labetalol hydrochloride using natural mucoadhesive polymer as xanthan gum. Prepared buccal tablets were comparatively evaluated for their physicochemical parameters like weight variation, hardness, thickness and friability test. The surface pH, swelling index, bio-adhesive strength, in-vivo residence time are also carried out which has been important aspect for success of mucoadhesive buccal tablets. In vitro drug release rate of Labetalol hydrochloride prepared from this material was studied in phosphate buffer of pH 6.8 containing 0.2% sodium lauryl sulphate at 37 ± 0.50c from this it was found that mucoadhesive buccal tablets prepared from natural mucoadhesive material exhibited extended drug (75%) release up to 8 hrs. Drug release from the tablets followed fickian diffusion. AUC(0-8) was increased and clearance was decreased when Labetalol buccal tablets with natural polymer were administered in the gingival area. Bioavailability was 3-fold after buccal administration compared with that of Labetalol suspension. The enhanced bioavailability by the buccal formulation might be attributed due to direct access of drug into the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drugs from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability
Key words: Buccal tablet, Labetalol hydrochloride, xanthan gum, Bioadhesion, in vitro release, in vivo animal studies.
May 2011 Issue
May - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 03
( Total Articles =25 )
Article No 6
May - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 03 / Article No -6 / Research Article
DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR LABETALOL USING NATURAL POLYMER
Ganesh G. N. K*, Manjusha Pallaprola,
Gowthamarajan K, Suresh Kumar R,
Senthil V, Jawahar N, Venkatesh N
1Department of Pharmaceutics,
J. S. S. College of Pharmacy, Rocklands,