Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Cordia dichotoma, is believed to have beneficial effects in the cough, chest disease hence it relief from severe colic pain. This herb has various medicinal effects, like astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent, expectorant, immunomodulator, antidiabetic,and hepatoprotective and also improving memory, treating anxiety and eczema. It also possesses antioxidant, cognitive enhancing and antiepileptic properties. In the present study the effect of Cordia dichotoma long-term cerebral hypoperfusion in rats was investigated. Transient cerebral ischemia was induced under Ketamine anaesthesia by blocking bilateral common carotid arteries (BCCAO) For chronic hypoperfusion studies, after separating them from nerves, the carotid arteries were doubly ligated with 3-0 silk and cut in between. Animals were returned to home cage after suturing the skin for behavioral and histopathological studies were done for chronic hypoperfusion studies. One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey test was used. In the present study, Long-term cerebral hypoperfusion in rats caused a propensity towards anxiety and listlessness (open field paradigm and elevated plus maze test) accompanied by deficits in learning and memory (Morris' water maze testing) and tendency towards depression (Porsolts swim test). Additionally, histopathological observations in forebrain revealed changes like gliosis, astrocytosis, cellular edema and inflammatory changes. Cordia dichotoma treatment (250 mg/kg p.o. for 28 days) alleviated these behavioral, cognitive and histopathological changes. The results suggest that Cordia dichotoma may be useful in cerebrovascular insufficiency conditions.
Key words: Cordia dichotoma, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
May 2011 Issue
May - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 03
( Total Articles =25 )
Article No 2
May - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 03 / Article No -2 / Research Article
ROLE OF CORDIA DICHOTOMA ON BEHAVIORAL CHANGES BY USING LONG -TERM HYPOPERFUSION IN RATS.
Anjana K. Patel*, Nimish L. Pathak,
Dr. H.D.Trivedi, Dr. L.D.Patel,
Mahendra G. Gavania, Hardik trivedi.
1C.U.Shah.College Of Pharmacy And Research,