Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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The current article focuses on the principles of mucoadhesive drug delivery systems based on adhesion to biological surfaces that are covered by mucus. An overview of the last decade’s discoveries on mucoadhesion and applications of mucoadhesive hydrogels as drug carriers is given. Techniques that are frequently used to study the adhesion forces and physicochemical linteractions between hydrogel, mucus, and the underlying mucosa are reviewed. Typical examples of applications of mucoadhesive hydrogels to mucosal routes of delivery are given. Finally, the perspectives of the application of these polymers in drug delivery are discussed. Mucoadhesion can be defined as a state in which two components, of which one is of biological origin are held together for extended periods of time by the help of interfacial forces mucoadhesion is the attachement of the drug along with a suitable carrier to the mucous membrane. Mucoadhesion is a complex phenomenon which involves wetting, adsorption and interpenetration of polymer chains The mucoadhesive polymers can be categorized into two broad categories, materials which undergo matrix formation or hydrogel formation by either a water swellable material or a water soluble material. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems is one of the most important novel drug delivery systems with its various advantages and it has a lot of potential in formulating dosage forms for various chronic diseases.
Key words: mucoadhesion, bioadhesion, oral mucosa, mucin.
April 2011 Issue
April - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 02
( Total Articles =26 )
Article No 18
April - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 02 / Article No - 18 / Review Article
RECENT ADVANCES IN ORAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS
1 DIT- Faculty of Pharmacy, Mussoorie Diversion road,
Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India.