Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Throughout history, plants have been used for medicinal purposes and, during the last three decades, we have witnessed a most remarkable revival of herbal medicine. In today’s medicine, as many as one third to approximately half of all drugs available in the market are derived from plants. For example anticancer drugs such as vincristine, vinblastine and paclitaxel (Taxol) are derived from plants and the widely used cardioactive drug digoxin is extracted from the foxglove plant (Digitalis lantana). Herbal therapies are widely used but are not as safe as is being promoted because of lack of safety data. So many of these herbal therapies can interact with other medications, causing either potentially dangerous side effects and / or reduced benefits from the medication. Almost one third of current users of herbal drugs were at risks of herb drug interaction. Since only limited information are available in the literature concerning herb drug interaction.. The clinical importance of herb-drug interactions depends on many factors associated with the particular herb, drug and patient. Herbs should be appropriately labeled to alert consumers to potential interactions when concomitantly used with drugs, and to recommend a consultation with their general practitioners and other medical careers.
Key words: herb drug interaction, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic
April 2011 Issue
April - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 02
( Total Articles =26 )
Article No 14
April - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 02 / Article No - 14 / Review Article
A. Nazeer3, K. Vyshnavi1
11.Dept. of Pharmacology, Bharat Institute of
Technology- Pharmacy,Hyderabad, AP, India.
2Dept of Pharmacology, Vignan institute of
pharmaceutical Sciences, Hyderabad, AP, India