Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder to the date. The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are amyloid angiopathy (AA), neuritic plaques (NP), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT). This article will provide an update on Alzheimer’s disease as and discuss the key elements of a proposed multi-step pathogenic pathway. In an attempt to simplify this complex process, the focus will be on the amyloid excess, inflammation and oxidative stress. Aß itself can be neurotoxic and can induce oxidative stress in cultivated neurons. Aß is, therefore, one player in the concert of oxidative reactions that challenge neurons besides inflammatory reactions which are also associated with the AD pathology.
Key words: Alzheimer’s disease; Amyloid ß; Oxidaive stress; Neurofibrillary tangles.
March - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 1
( Total Articles =25 )
March 2011 Issue
Article No 13
March - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 01 / Article No - 13 / Review Article
BEHIND THE ALZHEIMER DISEASE: A REVIEW
Maninder Singh 1*, Kumar Gaurav Singhal1,
1ASBASJS Memorial College Of Pharmacy,
Bela (Ropar), Punjab (India)
2Lovely Professional University,
(Chehru) Kapurthala, Punjab (India) .