ABSTRACT

   Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.



        

Key words:
Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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ABSTRACT
  
  
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder named for French doctor Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who first described the condition in 1885. The core symptoms of TS include multiple motor tics and one or more phonic tics, which last for more than a year. The tics may be simple or complex in nature and vary in number, frequency and severity over time. Comorbid disorders include anxiety, depression, learning difficulties and sleep disorders, although attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are most common. Tourette's is no longer considered a rare condition, but it may not always be correctly identified because most cases are classified as mild.Genetic and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of Tourette's, but the exact causes are unknown. In most cases, medication is unnecessary. The pathophysiology of TS mainly involves dysfunction of basal ganglia-related circuits and hyperactive dopaminergic innervations. Timely diagnosis and appropriate management can significantly impact psychosocial functioning. Morbidities may be a major source of disability and may determine ultimate prognosis. Additional management considerations must be made in those with TS symptoms. This is a review of recent literature focusing on the description of various signs and symptoms, causes, pathological findings, history and epidemiology. An outline of pharmacotherapy and pharmacological agents used in management of Tourette's syndrome has been made.


Key words:
Gilles de la Tourette, Tics, Tourette syndrome (TS).
March - 2011 / Volume - 3/Issue - 1
( Total Articles =25 )
March 2011 Issue
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Article No 11
March - 2011 / Volume - 3 / Issue - 01 / Article No - 11 / Review Article

TOURETTE SYNDROME A NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

Kiran B Kotade*1, Vinayak M Gaware2,
Ramdas T Dolas3 Kiran B Dhamak2,
Sachin B Somwanshi3, Vikrant K Nikam3,
Atul N Khadse2

1Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy
Chincholi, Sinnar, Nashik, M.S, 422101.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
College of Pharmacy Chincholi,
Sinnar, Nashik, M.S, 422101.
3Department of Pharmaceutics,
College of Pharmacy Chincholi, Sinnar, Nashik, M.S, 422101.
Email:kirankotade@rediffmail.com

Kiran Kotake