Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Starch citrate prepared by reacting potato starch with citric acid at elevated temperatures was found to be a white, crystalline, non-hygroscopic powder. Starch citrate prepared exhibited excellent flow characteristics. Starch citrate was insoluble in water and aqueous fluids of acidic and alkaline pHs. It also exhibited good swelling (1500%) in water. It has no pasting or gelling property when heated at 1000C in water for 30 min. As starch citrate exhibited good swelling in water it is considered as a promising disintegrant in tablet formulations and was evaluated as disintegrant in tablet formulations. Tablets of (i) sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) (100mg) (ii) paracetamol (PA) (120mg) (iii) piroxicam (PY) (20mg) and (iv)ibuprofen (IB) (100mg) were prepared by wet granulation method employing starch citrate at 2 and 5% strength as disintegrant in each case and were evaluated. All the formulated tablets employing starch citrate disintegrated within 2 min 30 sec. The drug dissolution from the tablets formulated employing starch citrate was much higher than the official specifications and gave higher dissolution than the corresponding commercial brands. Wet addition of starch citrate gave relatively faster dissolution with all the drugs than dry addition. All the tablets formulated employing starch citrate gave rapid and higher dissolution of the contained drug apart from fulfilling the official or GMP standards prescribed for uncoated tablets. The starch citrate, a new modified starch, was found to be a promising disintegrant in tablet formulations and can be used in a concentration of 2-5 % as an efficient disintegrant.
Key words: Modified Starch, Starch Citrate, Disintegrant, Tablets, Sulfameth, Paracetamol, Piroxicam, Ibuprofen.
Article No 2
February - 2011 / Volume - 2 / Issue - 12 / Article No -2 / Research Article
PREPARATION, CHRACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF STARCH CITRATE- A NEW MODIFIED STARCH AS A DISINTEGRANT IN TABLET FORMULATIONS
K.P.R. Chowdary1*,Veeraiah Enturi1
1University College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
February - 2011 / Volume - 2/Issue - 12
( Total Articles =25 )
February 2011 Issue