Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.
Key words: Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
Solid dispersions (SDs) of nevirapine (NVP) were prepared with the objective of dissolution enhancement by kneading and freeze drying technique using a novel carrier of low molecular weight dextran (DEX) at varied concentrations of drug: carrier (3:1 and 1:1w/w). The Fourier transform-IR (FT-IR) studies indicated the possibility of hydrogen bonding with the polymer. Powder-XRD and DSC were used to characterize the solid dispersions, indicated a transformation of drug from crystalline to microcrystalline form. In vitro dissolution studies of SDs performed in 0.1 N HCl showed a significant increase in dissolution rates of NVP comparing to physical mixtures and pure drug. Comparatively, SD of NVP:DEX, prepared by freeze drying method exhibited a higher release rate than prepared by kneading method. Improved dissolution of model drug may be attributed to the modification in drug crystallinity in SDs as was evident from our analytical studies. The dissolution pattern of the NVP from all the SDs followed predominantly first order kinetics compared to Hixson-Crowell’s cube root law. This study reflects the vital role of low molecular weight DEX as a novel carrier to improve the solubility of NVP, which could minimize the variable dissolution rates with increase in oral bioavailability.
Key words: Nevirapine, Antiretroviral, Solid dispersions, Freeze drying, Dextran.
Article No 01
February - 2011 / Volume - 2 / Issue - 12 / Article No - 01 / Research Article
ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF NEVIRAPINE BY SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE USING DEXTRAN: PREPARATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION
Lokamatha K. M*1,
Shanta kumar S. M1, Rama Rao N2.
1V. L. College of Pharmacy, Raichur-584103, INDIA
2 Chalapathi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Smt. Lokmatha K.M.
February - 2011 / Volume - 2/Issue - 12
( Total Articles =25 )
February 2011 Issue