ABSTRACT

   Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.



        

Key words:
Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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January 2011 Issue
ABSTRACT

Transdermal drug therapy has been one of the major research fields in the area of drug therapy for last few decades. However inspite of its large therapeutic potential market success has been limited. It provides the several advantages over the oral drug delivery. The skin is very effective as a selective penetration barrier. Percutaneous absorption involves the passage of the drug molecule from the skin surface into the stratum corneum under the influence of a concentration gradient and its subsequent diffusion through the stratum corneum and underlying epidermis, through the dermis, and into the blood circulation. The skin behaves as a passive barrier to the penetrant molecule. The stratum corneum provides the greatest resistance to penetration, and it is the rate limiting step in percutaneous absorption studies have been carried out to find safe and suitable permeation enhancers to promote the percutaneous absorption of a number of drugs. Penetration enhancers represent a popular method of increasing drug flux through the skin for local or systemic activity. Here the influence of different concentrations of oleic acid (1% and 3%) in gel formulations on percutaneous penetration of diclofenac sodium was investigated using Franz-type diffusion cells and egg membrane. The results of permeation studies showed that oleic acid enhance the percutaneous penetration and 3 % oleic acid was found to be more effective as a penetration enhancer.



Key words:
Diclofenac sodium, Skin, Transdermal, Permeation enhancer.
Article No 3
January - 2011 / Volume - 2 / Issue - 11 / Article No - 3 / Research Article

EFFECT OF PENETRATION ENHANCER ON IN VITRO RELEASE OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM GEL FORMULATION 


Hitesh Jain*1, Bhavin Shah1, Dhara Shah1,
Mansi Khirwadkar1, Krishna Prajapati1, T. Y. Pasha2


1Sigma Institute of Pharmacy, Baroda. Gujarat, India
2Pioneer Pharmacy College, Baroda, Gujarat, India
E-mail: hitesh_hitachi@rediffmail.com
Hitesh Jain
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