ABSTRACT

   Typhoid fever (TF) is an acute systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B. It is transmitted by the fecal oral route mainly via contaminated food and water. The developing countries have high rate of morbidity and mortality due to Typhoid fever, epidemics take place in developed world also. There are increased incidences of multi drug resistant in S. typhi strains that has further complicated its management and only a few antibiotics are now effective in treatment of typhoid. We report that the aqueous extracts of fruit peel Citrus sinensis (L.) confer anti typhoid activity against Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A and Salmonella Para Typhi B respectively on comparison with ciprofloxacin.



        

Key words:
Typhoid fever, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Para Typhi A , Salmonella Para Typhi B, anti typhoid activity, Citrus sinensis.
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January - 2010 / Volume - 2/Issue - 11
( Total Articles =13 )
January 2011 Issue
ABSTRACT

  In this single blind placebo controlled research study we examine the effects of psyllium husk on lipid profile of primary hyperlipidemic patients. Research was conducted in Jinnah Hospital Karachi, Pakistan, from December 2008 to June 2009. Forty already diagnosed hyperlipidemic patients were included, in the study. Twenty patients were on placebo as control/compare group, and twenty were on psyllium husk, ten gram daily, in divided doses for the period of three months. Exclusion criteria was patients with hypothyroidism, alcoholism, renal and hepatic disease. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were estimated by the enzymatic calorimetric method. Serum HDL-Cholesterol was determined by direct method, at day zero  and at  last day of the treatment. LDL-Cholesterol was calculated by Friedwald formula (LDL= Tc- (TG/5 + HDL-C). Data were expressed as the mean SD and t test was applied to determine statistical significance of results. P value lesser than 0.05 was the limit of significance. When results compiled it was observed that two patients discontinued to take drug given, due to metallic test of psyllium husk.  Psyllium decreased serum total cholesterol from 228.274.89 mg/dl to 199.22 2.30 mg/dl, triglycerides from 169.27 9.92 mg/dl to 164.58.56 mg/dl, LDL-Cholesterol from 159.72 5.70 to 129.55 2.81 mg/dl, and increased serum HDL-Cholesterol from 34.611.85 to 36.771.96 mg/dl in three months of treatment. Results of all parameters were significant when paired t test was applied for result analysis. At end of the research work we concluded that psyllium is very effective agent to maintain lipid profile parameters at normal limits in hyperlipidemic patients.


Key words:
Atherosclerosis. Primary hyperlipidemia. Heart disease. Psyllium husk.Cholesterol.Triglycerides.

Shah Murad
Article No 01
January - 2011 / Volume - 2 / Issue - 11 / Article No - 01 / Research Article

PSYLLIUM HYDROPHILIC MUCILLOID IS EFFECTIVE IN HYPERLIPIDEMIA CAUSING ATHEROSCLEROSIS


Shah Murad1*,
Hasan Raza2, Aruna Bashir4,
Samina Karim5, Moosa Khan6


1Professor/HOD, Pharmacology, Lahore Medical
& Dental College, Lahore, Pakistan
2Assistant Professor, Biochemistry, Lahore Medical
and Dental College, Lahore Pakistan
3
Assistant Professor, Anatomy, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore Pakistan
4
Associate Professor, Pharmacology, SIMS, Lahore, Pakistan
5Assistant Professor, BMSI, JPMC, Karachi, Pakistan
     Email:shahmurad65@gmail.com
Only 15 Articles will be Published in Each Issues